Before we get into this, I need to make two things clear:
First: You are a power athlete. You predominantly use what is called an anaerobic energy system. ..short explosive bursts but requires a lot of recovery between efforts. The average football play, for example, is approximately 5 seconds with 30 seconds between plays. The majority of your training should mimic that work:rest ratio and is vital to you being faster and more explosive.
Second: I am not talking about long slow jogs. Doing slow distance runs of 10k, for example, are counterproductive to power and strength. We are not training you to be a marathon runner.
But what we are training you is to be a better athlete. To recovery quicker, have greater resistance to fatigue, and more staying power. To be able to punish your competition in the 4th quarter or 9th inning ….by being able to maintain your power, strength, speed, agility, and focus while your competition is crumbling.
So let`s look at what I deem to be the Top 5 Reasons Why Endurance/Aerobic Training is Vital for Power and Strength Athletes….
5. Higher levels of endurance training are associated with larger blood volumes
I know I know, you are likely thinking “who cares?” If I were you, I’d be thinking the same! I mean, how does that make you faster? The answer boils down to recovery. Larger blood volume means you can carry nutrients more efficiently. Nutrients are carried via the blood to your working muscles and tissues that need it. Better nourishment means better recovery.
Larger blood volume also means you rid of wastes more efficiently. Through intensive training, your body makes metabolic by-products when replenishing energy for intense bursts of speed and power. Getting rid of the waste products faster = better recovery = you can handle more training in a healthy manner…even if it is two more sessions per month…add that up over time and that, my friend, can be the difference for gaining that extra edge over your competition.
If you only remember one thing, remember this:
Good stuff in. Bad stuff out.
Examples: Hockey players often ride a stationary bike at a low intensity following games to clear lactate (a waste product after intense exercise) in 45min vs 3+hrs, an important factor when having to recover for the next game. Active recovery is the most effective strategy for clearing lactate due to increased blood flow to working muscles.
To accelerate healing, Vikings running back Adrian Peterson was in the pool exercising both before and after ACL surgery. This stimulated blood flow and increased his range of motion. He leads the NFL in rushing only one season after an ACL tear.
4. Because NO SPORT utilizes an energy system exclusively.
There are 3 main energy systems:
- Phosphagen (ATP – Phosphocreatine System): This is the predominant system used in short term, very intense activities up to 6sec. ATP – Phosphocreatine (PCr) is the most important energy system for you football, baseball, and all other power athletes.
- Glycolytic – for intense activities (predominant energy system in 200m sprint, for example)
- Oxidative (aerobic) – the predominant energy system that is used 2+minutes into exercise
During the 40y dash, for example, the ATP-PCr system is the predominant energy system, but both the glycolytic and oxidative systems provide a small portion of the energy[1,7].
Of course, we place high emphasis and spend the majority of the time training the system you predominantly use. That’s the only way you will get faster and more explosive. But, just like your muscles during sport movements, nothing is isolated. Everything works together.
At no time during exercise does any single energy system provide the complete energy supply [1,7].
Key Point is this:
Your body’s energy systems are a Team. They help each other out.
Although baseball pitchers is anaerobic and is of primary importance, they typically include one day of aerobic conditioning between their game rotation sets to increase overall conditioning.
3. Pain Tolerance.
It is often said “where the brain goes, the body follows.” The brain – body connection is a fascinating area of research, and we are learning more and more about the importance of training the brain for sport performance. The brain tries to protect the body and if the training or competition is deemed too hard, you are more likely to give up. We need to train the brain to accept the pain.
You just don’t get into the pain and suffering zone with a 10 or 20sec burst. The duration has to be long enough to get into and be forced to push through the wall of suffering – and that involves entering the ‘aerobic zone.’
In my amateur boxing days, we had a running route that ended with a really tough, steep hill. We did the route for time, which meant maxing out your heart rate even before the steep finisher. The first time, all of us rookies cracked and ended up walking the last 50 metres or so. One of the guys told me ‘once you make it up the hill running, you will never walk it again.’ He was right. Once I beat the hill, I never walked it again. Brain – body connection.
I had the pleasure of partaking sessions with Juan Carlos Santana (a renowned strength and conditioning coach in Florida), who incorporates ‘gauntlets.’ These gauntlets are an intense and punishing 4-5min. Many of his professional athletes ‘fail’ by having to take rest breaks the first time. But guess what happened when the athletes did the same gauntlet again a few days later? They made it through. And this isn’t from getting fitter. The brain accepted the punishment. Brain – body connection.
Used appropriately, aerobic/endurance conditioning builds pain tolerance.
Pain tolerance is the ‘X’ factor.
Jerry Rice, wide receiver hall of famer and regarded by some as the best wide receiver of all time, was not the strongest or fastest player. But his work ethic is unsurpassable. He attributed much of his success to ‘the hill:’ a 2.5 mile hill that took ~15 minutes of effort. The first time he did ‘the hill,’ it kicked his butt. But he went back and got some more. Rice attributes ‘the hill’ to much of his success – increasing his pain tolerance and ability to keep going, no matter how tough things got.
2. Faster ability to re-synthesize Phosphocreatine (commonly called Creatine).
For power athletes, the ATP – PCr is the predominant energy system and can be the main limiting factor for sports performance. Creatine is “the stuff”, so to speak.
A decrease in Creatine contributes to fatigue. If Creatine is not replenished before your next burst of speed or power, it will be lacking. An essential requirement when you have to repeat this burst-type of activity repeatedly during a game.
Resynthesis of PCr is largely accomplished through aerobic metabolism [3,7]. Team sport athletes with a higher level of aerobic fitness can re-synthesize PCr faster, and generate and maintain power output better during repeated high-intensity efforts. Aerobic training also increases resting PCr concentrations and decreases rate of depletion.
Creatine is the Fireworks. The Aerobic System provides the Fuel for the Fireworks.
If you have enough fuel, you can put on a great show. But if you run out of fuel, your fireworks will simply be sparklers.
Reaction time was worse in low-level players than in high-level players after a 12-minute run, and was attributed to differences in endurance. Excelling at a reaction time test does not correlate to game performance if you lack the endurance to maintain reaction time, agility, and speed play after play.
1. Fatigue Resistance
Fatigue hinders performance. Muscle strength is decreased, reaction and movement times are prolonged, neuromuscular coordination are reduced, and speed and agility is slower. When you are physically fatigued, you also get mentally fatigued. Mentally fatigued athletes have reduced concentration and alertness. This impedes performance and increases your likelihood of injury.
What good are you if you only have 1-2 sprints or 1-2 pitches, and then fade? Better recovery means you can maintain your speed and power, whether it is the 4th quarter, 9th inning, or final round. Having the ability to recover between anaerobic sets can be the limiting factor.
The one with the greater endurance (yes, aerobic) level can maintain the quality of each burst activity throughout the game and still be relatively “fresh” during the latter parts of the game.[6,7]
Better Endurance → Less Fatigue → Better Performance
Baseball players with greater aerobic conditioning/endurance can complete a double header with little or no leg fatigue (common complaint in baseball), and are able to maintain concentration – a necessary requirement in a game of inches.
Sergio Martinez, amongst the top ‘pound for pound’ boxers in the world, has defied the odds by hitting his prime at 37 years old. Martinez was a professional cyclist before turning to boxing at age 20. The stamina he gained from cycling is attributed to his success: his ability to maintain his incredible power, stamina, and focus in the later rounds, while his opponent fades.
There is a time and place and type of aerobic/stamina conditioning and it should NOT replace your speed and explosiveness work. The majority of your training should be explosive efforts with appropriate work to rest ratios. It is extremely important that endurance training is used appropriately to make you faster, not slower.
Aerobic/endurance conditioning is often the missing link with power athletes. When done right, it can be the difference between being ‘good’ and GREAT.
- Baechle, T. R. & Earle, R. W. 2000. Essentials of strength and conditioning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Junge, A., Dvorak, J., Rosch, D., Graf-Baumann, T., Chomiak, J., & Peterson, L. (2000). Psychological and sport-specific characteristics of football players American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, S-22-S-28.
- Kritz, M., Mamula, R., Messey, K., and Hobbs, M. (2008). In-season strength and conditioning programming for collegiate baseball pitchers: A unified approach. National Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30 (4), 59-65.
- Marcus, C., Elliott, W., Wagner, P., and Chiu, L. (2007). Power athletes and distance training. SportsMedicine,27(1), 47-57
- Monedero, J., and Effect, D. (2000). Effect of recovery interventions on lactate removal and subsequent performance. International Journal of SportsMedicine, 21¸593-597.
- Stone,N., Kilding, and Andrew, E. (2009). Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes. Sports Medicine, 39 (8), 615-642.
- Wilmore, J. J., Costill, D. L., & Kennedy, W. L. (2008). Physiology of sport and exercise (4thed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.